Ministry of natural resources of the Russian federation

       Polistovsky National Nature Reserve

 
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October 2 - Mycologists have found rare mushrooms in Polistovsky Reserve

Mycologists have found rare mushrooms in Polistovsky Reserve

Диплокарпа Блоксема, Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Diplocarpa bloxamii, photo by Evgeny Popov

More than 10 rare species of mushrooms were found in Polistovsky Reserve in September by mycologists from Moscow (Moscow State University) and St. Petersburg (BIN RAS). Some species have not been met before in Pskov region, and one - diplocarpa bloxamii - was first met in Russia.

Scientists surveyed the protected area from the 5th to the 21st of September and made a list of fungi and fungi-like organisms - myxomycetes. This work continued similar studies in 2010 and 2017. Mycologists visited the remote old-growth forests in the northeast of Lake Polisto and in the western part of Polistovsky Reserve, and also inspected the forest along the ecological trail “Mossmen Route” in Loknyansky district.

Фулиго моховая, Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Fuligo muscorum, photo by Evgeny Popov

Specialists carefully examined the sites of dead wood accumulation, recorded the coordinates of the finds, information on habitats and substrates (soil or wood in which the mushrooms grew), and also photographed the organisms found. Some species are difficult to identify in the field, so they were collected in the herbarium for further identification in the laboratory.

"The dry summer did not contribute to the fruiting of mushrooms, however, we collected more than 800 samples of mushrooms and myxomycetes, identified at least 129 species of ascomycete fungi, preliminarily identified 72 species of cap fungi and 10 species of bracket fungi. When we finish the identification of all samples in the herbarium, the number of species found will undoubtedly increase. Along with the usual mushrooms, the discovery of which was predictable, we also made rare finds that expand the knowledge of mycologists about their distribution and ecology," - Evgeny Popov, PhD, senior researcher of the Laboratory of Mushroom systematics and geography of BIN RAS, said.

млечник бурый (Lactárius lignyótus), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгения Правдолюбова

Lactárius lignyótus, photo by Evgeniya Pravdolubova

One species, known for a few finds in Europe (Diplocarpa bloxamii) was recorded for the first time in Russia.

Several types of ascomycetes were found for the first time in Pskov Region:

  • Aleuriella personata – on the birch deadwood;

алевриелла обманчивая (Aleuriella personata), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Photo by Evgeny Popov

  • Ostropa barbara – on dead branches high in the crown of the aspen;
  • Ophiocordyceps variabilis) – awl-flies parasites.

офиокордицепс изменчивый (Ophiocordyceps variabilis), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Photo by Evgeny Popov

They've also found rare species listed in the Red Data Book of Novgorod Region and upcoming new editions of the Red Data Books of Leningradsky Region and St. Petersburg:

  • Bulgaria inquinans;

булгария пачкающая (Bulgaria inquinans), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Photo by Evgeny Popov

  • Holwaya mucida;

холвея слизистая (Holwaya mucida), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Photo by Evgeny Popov

  • Ionomidotis irregularis.

иономидотис неправильный (Ionomidotis irregularis), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгений Попов

Photo by Evgeny Popov

Mushrooms listed in the Red Data Book of Pskov Region:

  • Cortinarius violaceus;
  • Hericium corraloides.

ежовик коралловидный (Hericium corraloides), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгения Правдолюбова

Photo by Evgeniya Pravdolubova

A species from the Red Book of Novgorod region – Lactarius lignyotus.

Representatives of the Red Data Book of Russia:

  • lichen Lobaria pulmonaria, which is now being reintroduced in the buffer zone of Polistovsky Reserveа;

лобария легочная (Lobaria pulmonaria), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгения Правдолюбова

Photo by Evgeniya Pravdolubova

  • Polyporus umbellatus.

гриб-баран (Grifola frondosa), Полистовский заповедник, фото: Евгения Правдолюбова

Photo by Evgeniya Pravdolubova

Reference:

Fungi and myxomycetes are one of the main components of forest ecosystems, both by biomass (the total mass of organisms in the selected area) and by their functional role:

  • make a symbiotic association with trees and shrubs, forming mycorrhiza on the roots, and exchange nutrients with plants;

  • participate in the decomposition of plant residues (mineralization) and the formation of humus;
  • produce biologically active substances, some of which are used in medicine;
  • can be pathogens, causing disease in other organisms, and thus affect the entire ecosystem;
  • regulate the number of other microorganisms.

The change of ecosystems under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors affects the structure and composition of fungal communities. However, this effect is poorly understood, since mushrooms lead a secretive lifestyle and spend most of the time in the form of a mycelium, inaccessible for direct observation.

Inventory of mushrooms of Polistovsky Reserve this year has brought very interesting results, a scientific report and a list of noted species will be compiled soon. Further research is planned to be continued and expand.

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